An important component in the MAS, is the consideration of multimodality and learning by design. The Learning by Design model (LbD) introduced by Cope and Kalantzis in 2005, informs the MAS framework. Learning by Design is building into the curriculum the idea that not every learner will bring the same life experiences and interests to learning (Kalantzis & Cope, 2012), as well as acknowledging that every learner is not on the same page at the same time (Kalantzis & Cope, 2005).
LbD involves four core knowledge processes – experiencing, conceptualising, analysing and applying. The four ways of knowing have been expanded by Kalantzis and Cope (2005) to include eight subcategories and are intended to correlate to each of the four curriculum orientations of the multiliteracies pedagogy discussed above (Kalantzis & Cope, 2005, p.72):
- Experiencing: a) the known, and b) the new;
- Conceptualising: a) naming concepts, and b) theorizing;
- Analysing: a) functionally, and b) critically;
- Applying: a) appropriately, and b) creatively;
Experiencing involves personal engagement in sensations, emotions, physical memories, involvement of the self, and immersion in the human and natural world. Conceptualising is the translation and synthesis of experiences, conceptual forms, language, and symbols into abstract generalizations. Analysing is the transformation of knowledge by ordering, reflecting on, and interpreting the underlying rationale for particular designs and representations. Applying is the experiential application of internal thought processes to external situations in the world by testing the world and adapting knowledge to multiple, ambiguous situations (Kalantzis & Cope, 2005, p.96). These knowledge processes are intended to enable educators to analyse the learning that occurs when pedagogy of multiliteracies is implemented.
A MAS scenario describes, in a subject independent way, the proposed approaches and methods for educators and learners that comprise a complete MAS learning experience.
You can read the description of each scenario below: